In this analysis, we examine the number of people who have retired on disability pension due to knee and hip arthrosis and the share of people exposed to physical loading factors in the occupational group under scrutiny. On the basis of this information, it can be estimated to what extent retirement on disability pension could be prevented in different occupational groups by reducing loading factors. For instance, a company or an occupational health care unit could review what kind of long-term effects on disability pension cases can be achieved by modifying work. This is the first version and new disability pension reasons will be added in future updates.

This analysis provides information on the number of people who have retired on disability pension and the share of people exposed to physical loading factors in different occupations. This information makes it possible to identify occupations entailing a high risk of disability pension and to plan preventive measures. The analysis also describes the extent to which retirement on disability pension could be prevented by reducing loading factors.

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Number of new cases of disability pension

Select gender
Select retirement reason
65585754393937302817141212111110863Drivers, ship workers, et...Skilled agricultural, for...AssemblersPersonal service and prot...Sales workers and sales d...Farming and forestry advi...Customer services clerks...Miners and quarriers, bui...Science and engineering p...ProfessionalsHospital, care and kitche...Stationary plant and mach...Labourers in mining, cons...Handicraft and applied ar...Metal, machinery and rela...General and keyboard cler...Technicians and associate...Armed forcesTeaching professionals...010203040506070cases per 100,000 person-years - women - hip arthrosis

The “Number of new cases of disability pension” graph shows the new disability pension incidence, or the number of new disability pension cases per 100,000 person-years in the selected disease group and for the selected gender in different occupational groups. 100,000 person-years equals monitoring 100,000 persons for one year or 10,000 persons for ten years.

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Share of people exposed to loading factors

Sales workers and sales demonstrators
Select gender
15.820.828.9832.54.15.411.6LiftingKneelingHeavy workStandingshare of employees, %0102030405060708090100Sales workers and sales demonstratorsReference group (professionals)

The “Share of people exposed to loading factors” graph shows which share of the selected occupational and gender group works in duties involving manual lifting, carrying or pushing (more than 20 kg at least 10 times per day), kneeling or squatting down (a minimum of one hour per day), heavy physical work and standing or walking (more than five hours per working day). It has been proven that the occurrence of loading factors is connected to retirement on disability pension. Professionals were selected as the reference group as they have the lowest disability pension incidence rate.

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Extent to which retirement on disability pension could be prevented by reducing loading factors

Sales workers and sales demonstrators
Select gender
Select retirement reason
011.216.41.1LiftingKneelingHeavy workStandingcould be prevented, %0102030405060708090100Sales workers and sales demonstrators
02530354045505560657075
28.3 %
Individual loading factors
All loading factors combined

To what extent could new cases of disability pension be prevented in the selected occupational and gender group if the share of people exposed to loading factors were brought down to the same level as in the reference group (professionals)? The graph shows the extent of potential prevention if the profile of individual (bars) or all (doughnut) loading factors were the same as in the reference group. The extent is given for those occupational groups in which the disability pension incidence is higher than the average incidence for all occupations in the same gender group. The extent is not given if the occupational group is too small for producing a reliable estimate.

The analysis materials are based on an extensive 70% random sample that is representative of Finland’s working-age population. The register materials contain information on disability pension in 2013 from the Finnish Centre for Pensions and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) and Statistics Finland’s occupation information according to the international classification of occupations (Statistics Finland’s classification of occupations 2001).

The study population was restricted to 30–59-year-old employed wage earners who were not retired at the beginning of the monitoring period. The study population included more than million people. We monitored retirement on disability pension due to knee and hip arthrosis 2005–2013. The monitoring was continued until one of the following occurred: retirement due to knee or hip arthrosis or another reason, moving away from the country, death or the end of the monitoring period.

Information about work-related physical loading factors from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health’s loading factor database is combined with the analysis materials on the basis of the occupational code.